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A meta-analysis of the effects of face-to-face cooperative learning.

One of the major conclusive results of the research on learning in formal learning settings of the past decades is that cooperative learning has shown to evoke clear positive effects on different variables. Therefore this meta-analysis has two principal aims. First, it tries to replicate, based on recent studies, the research about the main effects of cooperative learning on three categories of outcomes: achievement, attitudes and perceptions. The second aim is to address potential moderators of the effect of cooperative learning. In total, 65 articles met the criteria for inclusion: studies from 1995 onwards on cooperative learning in primary, secondary or tertiary education conducted in real-life classrooms. This meta-analysis reveals a positive effect of cooperative learning on achievement and attitudes. In the second part of the analysis, the method of cooperative learning, study domain, age level and culture were investigated as possible moderators for achievement. Results show that the study domain, the age level of the students and the culture in which the study took place are associated with variations in effect size.

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